An Adaptation from Ash-Shaykh Bazmuul's Sharh Sifatis Salatin Nabiyy
Question: Is it allowed to pray in shoes?
Answer: Yes, it is allowed to pray in shoes because it was established from the Prophet - sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam - that he did so.
Question: What is the ruling regarding praying in shoes?
Answer: The ruling of Salaah in shoes is that it is recommended, the evidence for this is the statement of the Messenger [sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam]: ‘Act differently from the Jews, for they do not pray in their sandals or their shoes’.
This order is for recommendation. The evidence for its recommendation is that the Messenger of Allaah - sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam - prayed barefoot, likewise he prayed in shoes, had it been that the order was an obligation, the Messenger - sallaLlahu alayhi wa sallam - would not have opposed it.
With close observation, the point of recommendation is implementing this Sunnah based upon how he - sallaLlahu alayhi wa sallam - performed it, this is keeping its conditions.
Question: Does praying in the shoes have conditions?
Answer: Praying in the shoes has two conditions: The first condition: There should be no filth under the shoes. The Messenger sallaLlahu alayhi wa sallam said: When any of you comes to the masjid, he should see; if he finds filth on his sandals, he should wipe it off and pray in them.
Thus the first condition for offering Salaah in shoes is that the pair of shoes should be free from filth.
The second condition: praying in shoes should not cause any harm (to others), because he - sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam - said: ‘Do not harm, do not reciprocate harm.’ Definitely, the Messenger - sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam - never prayed in the masaajid furnished with rug [or tiles], he only prayed on the sand and mat. If the rug will be dirtied with the shoes, or harm the people, he should not pray in them. Because implementing a Sunnah needs to be upon the Sunnah, we will implement the Sunnah as the Messenger - sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam - implemented it. It is not right that the only aim of a Muslim in the Sunnah is merely implementing it, without considering the way [or conditions] the Messenger - sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam - did it.
This is an important principle that deals with the reality of following the Messenger sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam and acting upon the Sunnah. Ibn Taymiyyah mentioned it in Al Majmuu' Al Fataawaa vol.1 pp.274-278.
Question: Where should the praying person place his shoes, when he prays barefooted?
Answer: If a Muslim prays barefooted, he will place his shoe at his left side, if there is nobody there, if a person is there, he should place it in between his feet as was reported in the narration which was mentioned by the author [Ash-Shaykh Al Albaanee]. He - sallaLlahu alayhi wa sallam - said: ‘When any of you prays, he should not place his sandals on his right side or on his left so as to be on the right side of someone else, unless no one is at his left, but should place them between his feet.’
But what some people do by placing the shoe in their fronts and making sujud to its direction is neither right nor befitting.
Question: If a Muslim prays in his shoe, and it becomes clear to him during the Salaah that there is impurity under his shoes, is it allowed for him to put them off during the Salaah?
Answer: Yes, if a Muslim prays in his shoes, and it becomes known to him during the Salaah that impurity is under his shoes, it’s allowed for him to put it off, and build on his Salaah [that is, he should continue his Salaah] because of the narration that the compiler [Ash-Shaykh Al Albaanee] cited from Abu Sa'eed Al Khudree: When the Apostle of Allah (sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was leading his Companions in prayer, he took off his sandals and put them on his left side. So when the people saw this, they removed their sandals. When the Apostle of Allah (sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam) finished his prayer, he asked: ‘What made you remove your sandals?’ They replied: ‘We saw you remove your sandals, so we removed our sandals.’ The Apostle of Allah (sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam) then said: ‘Jibreel came to me and informed me that there was filth in them. When any of you comes to the masjid, he should see if he finds filth on his sandals, he should wipe it off and pray in them.’
There is evidence in it that the movement that occurs in Salaah because of necessity or unforeseen matter does not invalidate the Salaah.
In it [the narration], if the praying person has impurity on him that he was not aware of, his Salaah with the impurity is not invalidated, as long as he not aware.
The evidence is: "The Messenger - 'alayhis salaatu wa sallam - built upon the Salaah that he prayed with the shoes that had impurities."
Had it been the Salaah was invalidated because of the impurity that was before, the Messenger of Allah (sallaLlahu 'alayhi wa sallam) would have repeated his Salaah.
[Sharh Sifatis Salatin Nabiyy pp.142-144]Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala aali Muhammad kamaa salayta 'ala Ibraaheem,wa alaa aali Ibraaheem innaKa Hameedun Majeed. Allahumma baarik 'ala Muhammad wa ala aali Muhammad kamaa baarakta 'ala aali Ibraaheem wa 'ala aali Ibraaheem innaKa Hameedun Majeed