The issue of difference of opinions is widely known, and there is no blame on it, if it is out of sincerity, knowledge-based and jurisprudential issues. Hardly will you find differences in the issues of Aqeedah, Manhaj and Tawheed.
The Best and First Generation experienced it and there was no dime blame, but only preference. The Prophet – salallaahu lahyi wa sallam - said: If you meet the Sunnah (in your view), you will have two rewards. (Sunan Abee Daawood and An-Nasaee).
Ash-Shaykh Saalih al-'Uthaymeen (in Fat’hul Dhil Jalaal vol.1 p.521 Maktabah Haadee Muhamadee Edtn.): The one that coincides the Sunnah is the best. This is the preference, even from the Messenger [of Allaah] – salallaahu alahyi wa sallam.
Indeed, the wide assertion with the scholars from time immemorial is the maxim that: ‘The truth is indivisible.’ So, in every difference, there must be right and wrong perspectives, and with sincerity and qualification, both parties are rewarded.
Factors That Cause Differences of Opinions:
1) Unavailability of textual evidences, here, the scholars resort to analogical deductions. That is why a principle goes thus: There is no refutation in the issue of analogical deduction. Sorrowfully, there are some issues with clear cut evidences but some people claim it is of analogical deductions!
2) When the available text is not clear enough (such that it can be interpreted in many ways).
3) When a jurist depends on a weak narration unintentionally.
4) When an authentic narration does not reach the scholar and he used an available weak evidence or analogical deduction.
5) When two scholars differ on the gradation of a report: one graded it weak, while other graded it authentic.
6) The basic principles (Usool) of each madh’hab, like the school of thought of Dhaahiriyah [The Literalists]; they rely on the open meaning of the text and among others.
7) Where two texts seem contradictory: In this case, the first solution is 'combining the two evidences.' The scholars do say: Using two seemingly contradictory evidences at a time is more appropriate than abandoning one of them for other. Some scholars may find way to combine the evidence, while some may not accept it, then to the second step.
The second step is: knowing the history of both reports, perhaps abrogating and abrogated evidences can be determined. If this is determined, good, if not, other principle will be used.
With this, scholars and their students address the issue with wide heart, maturity, insight, respect and love. Though, there are some human actions among the scholars, which made (or make) them 'exchange ink combat' between themselves. This was seen in Zaad al-Ma'aad where Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah calls whoever opines 'going to prostration with hands' as mad (majnoon), al-Albaanee tagged whoever opined 'folding arms after rukoo' as astray and among others.
Interestingly, the aforementioned never severe the relations between the scholars invloved.
Then Where Comes the Problem?
The differences of opinions would have been in-between the scholars and real learners, and the hue and cry of the Ikhwaanees and the ignoramuses would not have beaten the drum of an ant, but for the:
Fake learners: These are the set of people who are at the onset of learning, but believe they have arrived after learning one-faced fiqh and one or two principles. With them, no insight, no respect, no maturity and their tongues are as sharp as Hajaaj’s sword.
The Social Media: The evolution of social media gives pens to the laymen and voices to the dumb. So, the 'fake learners' turn it a way to pour their foolery and 'exchange verbal blows.'
Manners of Difference of Opinions Among the Real Learners
Presentation of evidence (s) and deduction(s): Scholars are innately calm, they listen to the opposite evidences and views, even the evidences of those who are outside the religion or manhaj. This strengthens their refutations.
Weakening the evidence not the owner of the evidence: The scholars do respect one other, but not the wrong view. That is from the reason they accompany the name of whomever they refute with appellations such as Ash-Shaykh, Al-Faadhil, Al-Faqeeh and among others.
We beseech Allaah to guide us to what is good. Aameen.