THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND THEIR PROOFS

By Shaykhul-Islm Muhammad bn AbdilWahhb Rahimahu-Llahu

Translation: Aboo Aamir Al-Atharee

Know may Allh the Mighty show mercy unto you that it is imperative on us to know four matters:

One: the Knowledge, which is about Allh, His Prophet and the Deen of Islam with its proofs.

Two: Acting upon it (i.e. the Knowledge).

Three: Calling to it.

Four: Patience over harms thereof.

The proof for that is Allh's Word the Mighty:

[I swear] by Al-'Asr (the time). Verily! Man is in loss, except those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and recommend one another to the Truth and recommend one another to patience. [Al-Asr:1-3 ].

Al-Imm As-Shfi' may Allh bestow mercy upon him said: 'If Allh did not send down any proof upon His creatures except this Srah then it will suffice them.'

Al-Imm al-Bukhri may Allh bestow mercy upon him said (in his book): Chapter of Knowledge Before Statements and Actions, and the proof is the Word of Allah:

So know (O Muhammad) that none has the right to be worshipped but Allh, and ask forgiveness for your sin. [Muhammad: 19]

(Imm al-Bukhri may Allh bestow mercy upon him said) He (Allh the Most Sublime) did begin with knowledge before statement and action.

Know may Allh be merciful unto you that it is incumbent upon every Muslim male and female to have knowledge regarding the following three matters, and to act upon them:

One: That Allh the Mighty Lord created us, provides for us and He does not leave us aimlessly rather He sent a Messenger to us. Whoever therefore obeys the Messenger will enter the Paradise and whoever disobeys him will enter the Hell. The proof for that is the Statement of Allh the Mighty:

Verily, We have sent to you (O men) a Messenger (Muhammad) to be a witness over you, as we did send a Messenger [Moses] to Fir'aun (Pharaoh).

But Fir'aun disobeyed the Messenger [Msa (Moses)], so We seized him with a severe punishment. [Mudaththir: 15-16].

Two: That Allh is not pleased with making anyone a partner unto Him in worship; not an angel close to Allh or a Prophet sent (to the people). The proof for that is the Statement of Allh the Mighty:

And the mosques are for Allh (Alone), so invoke not anyone along with Allh. [Jinn: 18]

Three: That whoever obeys the Messenger and holds Allh to be One is not permitted to take as friends he that opposes Allh and His Messenger even if such were to be the closest relation. The proof for this is the Statement of Allh the Mighty:

You (O Muhammad) will not find any people who believe in Allh and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allh and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kindred. For such He has written faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Rh (proofs, light and true guidance) from Himself. And we will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein (forever). Allh is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the party of Allh. Verily, it is the party of Allh that will be the successful. [Mujdilah: 22].

Know may Allh guide you to His obedience that al-Haneefiyyah, the path of Prophet Ibrahim, is that you should worship Allh Alone rendering the Deen solely for Him. This is what Allh has commanded all mankind and it is upon that He created them, just as He the Mighty said:

And I (Allh) created not the jinns and humans except they should worship Me (Alone). [Dhriyt: 56]

The meaning of Ya'buduun ('should worship Me') is Yuwahhidun ('make Me One').

The greatest thing Allh commanded is rendering the worship solely for Allh; the greatest thing Allh forbade Shirk calling other than Allh.

The proof (for the above) is Allh's Statement:

Worship Allh and join none with Him in worship [An-Nis: 36]

If you were asked: What are the Three Fundamental Principles that are incumbent upon a person to know?

Say (they are:) That the slave should know his Lord, his Deen and his Prophet, Muhammad, may the peace and benediction of Allh be upon him.

If you were asked: 'Who is your Lord?' Reply that, 'Allh is my Lord Who nourishes me and nourishes all the creation with His bounties; He is Whom I worship there is none else worthy of my worship beside Him.'

The proof for that is the Statement of Allh the Mighty:

All the praises and thanks be to Allh, the Lord of the worlds. [Al-Faatihah:2]

(Therefore) all that is beside Allh is 'the world' and I am a part of that world.

If you were asked: With what do you recognize your Lord? Say: With His signs and creation. Among His signs are the night and the day, the sun and the moon. And among His creation are the seven firmaments and the seven earths including what they contain and all what is between them. The proof for that is the Statement of Allh the Mighty:

And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate to Allh Who created them, if you (really) worship Him. [Shu'araa: 37]

So also is this Statement of Allh the Mighty:

Indeed your Lord is Allh, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then He Istaw (rose over) the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to his Command. Surely, His is the creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allh, the Lord of the worlds! [Al-'Araaf: 54].

Ar-Rabb is the One worthy of worship. The proof for that is Allh's Statement the Mighty:

O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allh), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become those who are pious. [He Allh] Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allh (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped). [Al-Baqarah: 21-22].

Ibn Kathr may Allh bestow mercy upon him said: The Creator of all this is the One entitled to being worshipped.

The various acts of worship which Allh commands thereof such as Islam (submitting to Allh), Eemn (Faith) and Ihsn (goodness); so also are Du (supplications), Khauf (fear), Raj (hope), Tawakkul (trust in Allh), Ragbah (inclination), Rahbah (dread), Khushoo' (reverence), Khashyah (awe), Inbah (turning in repentance), Isti'nah (seeking help), Isti'dha (seeking refuge), Istighthah (seeking succour), Dhab'h (slaughtering) and Nadhr (making vows), among other acts of worship which Allh commands of, all of them are solely for Allh the Mighty. The proof for that is the Statement of Allh the Mighty:

And the mosques are for Allh (Alone), so invoke not anyone along with Allh. [Jinn: 18]

Whoever directs any of those acts of worship to other than Allh is a mushrik [a polytheist] and kfir [a disbeliever]. The proof for that is the Statement of Allh the Mighty:

And whoever invokes (or worships), besides Allh, any other Ilh (God), of whom He has no proof, Then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely, the disbelievers [in Allh and in the Oneness of Allh], will not be successful. [Al-Mu'minoon: 117].

And it has come in a hadith (that the Messenger of Allh said:)

'Supplication is the brain of worship'

The proof for that is the Statement of Allh the Mighty:

And your Lord said: "Invoke Me, [i.e. believe in My Oneness (and ask Me for anything) I will respond to your (invocation). Verily, those who scorn My Worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness will surely enter Hell in humiliation! [Al-Ghfir: 60]

The proof for al-Khauf is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

So fear them not, but fear Me, if You are (true) believers. [Aal-'Imrn: 175]

The proof for ar-Raj is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord. [Al-Khahf: 110]

The proof for at-Tawakkul is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

And put your trust in Allh if you are believers indeed. [Al-Maaidah: 23]

So also is His Word:

And whosoever puts his trust in Allh, then He will suffice Him. [At-Talaaq: 3]

The proof for ar-Ragbah, ar-Rahbah and al-Khusoo' is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Verily, they used to hasten on to do good deeds, and they used to call on Us with hope and fear, and used to humble themselves before Us. [Al-Anbiy: 90].

The proof for al-Khashyah is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

So fear them not, but fear Me! [Al-Baqarah: 150].

The proof for al-Inbah is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

And turn in repentance and in obedience with true faith to your Lord and submit to Him, (in Islm). [Az-Zumar: 150].

The proof for al-Isti'nah is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help. [Al-Faatihah: 5]

So also, it has come in a hadith:

'When you seek help, seek it from Allh.'

The proof for al-Isti'dhah is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Say: I seek refuge with (Allh) the Lord of the daybreak. [Al-Falaq: 1]

So also is this:

Say: I seek refuge with (Allh) the Lord of mankind. [An-Naas: 1]

The proof for al-Istighthah is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

(Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you. [Al-Anfl: 9]

The proof for adh-Dhab'h is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Say (O Muhammad): "Verily, my Salt (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allh, the Lord of the worlds. He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims." [Al-An'm: 162-163].

And it has also come in the Sunnah (that the Messenger of Allh may the peace and benediction of Allh be upon him):

'Allh curses whoever slaughters for other than Allh.'

The proof for an-Nadhr is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

They (are those who) fulfill (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil will be wide-spreading. [Al-Insn: 9].

The Second Principle: Knowing the Deen of Islam with Its Proofs

Islam is submission to Allh in , obedience to Him and shunning Shirk and its people. Islam is of three levels: al-Islam, al-Eemn and al-Ihsn. Each of the level has its pillars. The pillars of Islam are five viz. bearing the testimony that there is none worthy of worship except Allh and that Muhammad is His Messenger, establishing Prayers, paying Zakh, fasting in Ramadan and going on pilgrimage to the Sacred House of Allh.

The proof for the Testimony (that there is none worthy of worship except Allh) is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Allh bears witness that L ilha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), and the angels, and those having knowledge (also give this witness); (He is always) maintaining his creation in justice. L Ilh illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. [Aal-'Imrn: 18]

The meaning of the Testimony is that there is none worthy of worship except Allh Alone. (The phrase) L il-ha ['There is none worthy of worship'] negates all that is worshipped beside Allh. While illa Allh ['except Allh'] establishes worship for Allh Alone without partners with Him in His worship just as there is no partner with Allh in His Dominion.

The exegesis of the Testimony; what makes it clearer is the word of Allh the Mighty:

And (remember) when Ibrhm (Abraham) said to his father and his people: "Verily, I am innocent of what you worship except Him (i.e. I worship none but Allh Alone) who did create me, and verily, He will guide me."And he made it [i.e. L ilha ill-Allh a word lasting among his offspring, that they may turn back (i.e. to repent to Allh or receive admonition). [Az-Zukhruf: 26-28].

So also is Allh's Word:

Say (O Muhammad ): "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allh, and that we associate no partners with him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allh. Then, if they turn away, say: "Bear witness that we are Muslims." [Aal-Imraan: 64]

The proof for the testimony that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allh is the Word of Allh the Mighty that goes thus:

Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves (i.e. whom you know well). It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He (Muhammad) is anxious over you (to be rightly guided, to repent to Allh, and beg Him to pardon and forgive your sins, in order that you may enter Paradise and be saved from the punishment of the Hell-fire), for the believers (he is) full of pity, kind, and merciful. [At-Taubah: 128]

The meaning of the testimony that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allh is obedience to him regarding his commands, believing him in what he says, shunning what he forbids and decries, and that Allh is not worshipped except with what he has legislated.

The proof for Salt and Zakkh is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allh, and worship none but Him Alone, and perform as-Salt and give Zakt: and that is the right religion. [Al-Bayyinah: 5]

The proof for fasting is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

O you who believe, observing as-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become those who are pious. [Al-baqarah: 183]

The proof for hajj is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka'bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allh, those who can afford the expenses (for one's conveyance, provision and residence); and whoever disbelieves [i.e. denies Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah), Then he is a disbeliever of Allh], Then Allh stands not in need of any of the worlds. [Aal-'Imrn: 97]

The Second Level: Al-Eemn [Faith]

This has more than seventy parts; the uppermost of it is La Ilha illa Allh while its smallest part is removing a harmful object from the path. Bashfulness is also a part of Faith.

Its pillars are six: That you believe in Allh, His angels, His books, His Messengers, the Last Day and Preordainment good and bad.

The proof for these Six Pillars is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

It is not piety that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but piety is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allh, the Last Day, the angels, the book, the prophets [Al-Baqarah: 177]

The proof for predestination is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments). [Al-Qamar: 49]

The Third Level: Al-Ihsn

This has just a pillar that you should worship Allh as if you see Him, for if you do not see Him, He sees you.

The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Truly, Allh is with those who fear Him, and those who are good-doers. [An-Nahl: 128]

So also His Statement may He be exalted:

And put your trust in the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful, Who sees you (O Muhammad) when you stand up (alone at night for Tahajjud Prayers). And your movements among those who fall prostrate (along with you in the five compulsory congregational prayers). Verily, He, Only He, is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. [Ash-Shua'ar: 217-220]

So also His Word the Mighty:

Whatever you (O Muhammad) may be doing, and whatever portion you may be reciting from the Qur'n, - and whatever deed you (mankind) may be doing (good or evil), We are witness thereof, when you are doing it [Ynus: 61].

The proof from the Sunnah (for al-Ihsn) is the popular hadith of Jibrl that has come on the authority of Umar may Allh be pleased with him who said: We were sitting with the Messenger of Allh (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) one day then suddenly a man appeared to us; the man's clothing was extremely white while his hair was extremely black. There was no sign of a traveller upon him nor did any of us know him before. The man went and sat before the Prophet (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam); he aligned his knees towards his (the Prophet's knees) and he placed his two hands upon his two thighs and said: 'O Muhammad, tell me about Islam.' The Messenger of Allh (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) replied: 'Islam is that you testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allh and that Muhammad is Messenger of Allh, and that you establish the prayer, give the Zakkh, fast in Ramadan and go on pilgrimage to the House if you have a means thereto.' The man then said: 'You have spoken the truth.' We then became amazed regarding the man for his act of asking him (the Prophet) and saying he had said the truth. The man said: 'Then tell me about Faith.' He (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) replied: 'That you believe in Allh, His angels, His books, His Messengers, the Last Day and that you believe in preordination, its good and bad.' He (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: 'You have spoken the truth.' Then he said: 'Tell me about Goodness.' He (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) replied: 'That you worship Allh as if you see Him, for if you cannot see Him, He sees you.' Then he said: 'Tell me about (the coming of) the Hour.' He said: 'The one being asked is not as knowledgeable as the person asking.' He said: 'Then tell me about its signs.' He (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: 'That a maid should give birth to her master and that you see the poor barefooted unclothed shepherds competing in erecting edifices.' Then the man left. I tarried a while then he (the Messenger of Allh (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam)) said: 'O Umar, do you know the person that asked the questions?' I replied: 'Allh and His Messenger know best.' He (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: 'Indeed that was (Angel) Jibrl, he came to teach you your religion.'

The Third Principle: Knowing your Prophet who is Muhammad (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam).

He is Muhammad bn Abdillh bn AbdilMuttalib bn Hshim. Hshim was from the Quraysh and the Quraysh was from the Arab and the Arab were from the offspring of Ismail bn Ibrhim Al-Khall may the best of benedictions and peace upon him and our Prophet.

He (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) lived for sixty-three years, forty of which were before he (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) was commissioned as a Prophet while the remaining thirty he (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) spent as a Prophet and Messenger. He was made a prophet when the Verse of Read-in-the-Name-of-Your-Lord was revealed to him, and was made a Messenger when the Verse of Mudath-thir was revealed to him. His city was Makkah. Allh sent him to warn people from Shirk and to call to Oneness of Allh.

The proof is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

O you (Muhammad) enveloped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And your Lord (Allh) magnify! And your garments purify! And keep away from Ar-Rujz! And give not a thing in order to have more (or consider not your deeds of Allh's obedience as a favour to Allh). And be patient for the sake of your Lord (i.e. perform your duty to Allh)! [Al-Mudaththir: 1-7].

The meaning of the Verse 'Arise and warn!' is that he (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) warns from Shirk and calls to .

'And your Lord (Allh) magnify!' Meaning: 'Magnify Him with .'

'And your garments purify!' Meaning: 'Purify you deeds from Shirk.'

'And keep away from Ar-Rujz!' Ar-Rujz are idols. Keeping away from them means deserting them and those who worship them; so also it means disavowing them and those who worship them.

He (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) spent ten years calling to and after the tenth year he (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) was taken on a journey to the heavens and the Five Daily Prayers were made obligatory on him. He (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) observed the prayers in Makkah for three years and after that he (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) was commanded to embark on a hijrah to Madeenah.

Al-Hijrah: This is moving from a polytheistic town to an Islamic town. Hijrah is obligatory upon this Ummah; from a polytheistic town to an Islamic town. It will remain till the coming of the Hour. The proof for this is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory for them), they (angels) say (to them): "In what (condition) were you?" They reply: "We were weak and oppressed on earth." They (angels) say: "Was not the earth of Allh spacious enough for you to emigrate therein?" Such men will find their abode in Hell - what an evil destination! Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. For these there is hope that Allh will forgive them, and Allh is ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving. [An-Nisaa: 97-99].

So also is His Words:

O My slaves who believe, certainly, spacious is My earth. Therefore worship Me (Alone)." [Al-Ankabt: 56].

[Al-Imm] Al-Baghawi may Allh bestow mercy upon him said: The reason for the revelation of the Verse was as regard the Muslims that were in Makkah who did not migrate (to Madeenah). Allh called them believers.

The proof for al-Hijrah in the Sunnah is the statement of the Messenger of Allh (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) :

'Hijrah will not cease to be until there is no (acceptability of) repentance, and granting of repentance will not cease until the sun rises from its west.'

When he (the Messenger of Allh (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam)) became settled in Madeenah, he (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) was commanded as regard the other laws of Islam such as Zakh, fasting, hajj, call-to-prayer, jihad, enjoining good and forbidding evil, among other aspects of the laws of Islam. He spent ten years over this. After that his soul was taken may the peace and benediction of Allh be upon him while his religion was complete. This is his religion, there was no goodness except that he (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) invited the Ummah to it, and no evil except that he (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam) warned against it. The goodness that he called to is and all that is loved and pleased with by Allh. And the evil which he warned of is Shirk and all that is detested by Allh and frowned at.

Allh sent him to all mankind and made obedience to him obligatory upon the Jinn and Mankind. The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Say (O Muhammad): "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allh " [Al-'Arf: 158].

With him, Allh the Mighty completed His Deen. The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islm as your religion. [Al-Midah: 3]

The proof for his death is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Verily, you (O Muhammad) will die and verily, they (too) will die. Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord. [Aal-'Imrn: 30-31].

People will be raised up when they die. The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Thereof (the earth) we created you, and into it we shall return you, and from it we shall bring You out once again. [Ta-Ha: 55].

So also His Word:

And Allh has brought you forth from the (dust of) earth. Afterwards He will return you into it (the earth), and bring you forth (again on the Day of Resurrection)? [Nh: 17-18].

And after resurrection, people will be made to render their account and will be rewarded according to their actions. The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

And to Allh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done (i.e. punish them in Hell), and reward those who do good, with what is best (i.e. Paradise). [An-Najm: 31].

Whoever denies the resurrection becomes a kfir. The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

The disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected (for the account). Say (O Muhammad): "Yes, by my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, Then you will be informed of (and recompensed for) what you did, and that is easy for Allh. [At-Taghabun: 7].

Allh sent all the Messengers as givers of glad tidings, and as warners. The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allh after the Messengers. And Allh is ever AllPowerful, AllWise. [An-Nis: 165].

The first of the Messengers was [Prophet] Nh while their last was Muhammad may the peace and blessing of Allh be upon him; he was the seal of the prophets.

The proof for the statement that Nh was the first of the Messengers is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Nh (Noah) and the Prophets after him [An-Nisaa: 163].

Each Ummah had a messenger sent to it by Allh from Nh to Muhammad, while each of the Messenger would command them of worship to Allh Alone and forbid them from worshipping Tght. The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allh (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Tght (all false deities)." [An-Nahl: 36].

Allh made it obligatory upon all the slaves to disbelieve in Tght and believe in Allh. Ibn al-Qayyim may Allh bestow mercy upon him said: The meaning of Tght is that with which a slave transgresses the bounds with regards to the one being worshipped or followed or obeyed. Twaaght (sing. Tght) are numerous but their heads are five: Ibls may Allh curse him, the one that is worshipped while he is pleased with it, the person who calls people to worship him, whoever claims any aspect of knowledge of the Unseen, and whoever judges by other than Allh's laws. The proof for that is the Word of Allh the Mighty:

There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong Path. Whoever disbelieves in Tght and believes in Allh, Then He has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allh is All-Hearer, All-Knower. [Al-Baqarah: 256].

This is the meaning of (the statement:) L Ilha illa Allh ['There is none worthy of worship except Allh'].

It has come in a hadith (that the Messenger of Allh (salaLlaahu alayhi wa sallam)) said:

'The peak of the affair is Islam, its pillar is Prayer, and its apex is striving in the path of Allh.'

Allh knows better.



 
   
         
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