Compilation: Muhammad Balogun
Perfect Praise is due to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds and we pray He exalts the mention of our Messenger amongst the High Angels.
Indeed, the noble companion, Abdullaah bin Mas'uud (may Allaah be pleased with him) spoke the truth when he said "If you were to abandon the Sunnah of your Prophet, then you will certainly go astray" [Saheeh Muslim]. Such actions usually lead to unnecessary hardship and our Lord, The Most Merciful, had said, “He (Allaah) has chosen you (Muslims)and has not laid any hardship upon you in the religion” [Q22:78]. From the forgotten Sunnah is praying at home during rainfall and the Muadhin announcing this.
The two Imaams, Al-Bukharee and Muslim, narrated in their Saheeh on the authority of Yahya bin Ubaidullaah that Abdulaah Ibn Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) made the adhaan in a cold night in 'Dajanaan, then he pronounced saloo fee rihaalikum ('pray in your houses'). So he informed us that the Messenger of Allaah (sallalaahu 'alayhi wasallam) used to command the muadhin to say saloo fee rihaal('pray in the dwelling') on a cold or rainy night while on a journey. The great muhaddith, Ibn Hajar (may Allaah be merciful to him), said Dajanaan is a mountain on the route to Makkah.
Imam Muslim reported in his Saheeh that Abdullaah Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said to his muadhin on a rainy day: 'When you say Ashadu an laa ilaaha ilaLlaah, wa ashadu anna Muhammadan RasooluLlaahi, don't say "hasten to prayer"(haya'alaasalaat) but say "pray in your houses" (saloo fee buyuutikum).' It seemed people objected to the act, soIbn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: 'Are you amazed at what one who is better than me (i.e. the Prophet) did? Jum'ah is important but I detest harming you by making you walk in the mud.'
Imam Ahmad (may Allaah be merciful unto him) narrated in his Musnad that Abul Maleeh narrated from his father (a Companion of the Messgenger of Allaah (sallalaahu 'alayhi wasallam)) that they were with the Messenger of Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) on the day of Hudaybiyah. The rain started and his muadhin (that is, the muaadhin of the Messenger of allaah (sallalaahu 'alayhi wasallam)) made the call saying "pray in your houses." Ash-Shaykh Al-Albanee (may Allaah be merciful unto him) authenticated it in his Saheeh Sunan Ibn Majah.
Amr bin Aws (may Allaah be pleased with him) narrated that a man from Thaqeef informed him that he heard the muadhin of the Messenger of Allaah (sallalaahu 'alayhi wasallam) saying on a rainy day "hasten to sallaah, hasten to success, pray in your houses". This is narrated by the two Imaam Ahmad and An-Nas’aee. Ash-Shaykh Al-Albanee said its chain is authentic in ath-Thamrul-Mustataab. The man from Thaqeef was a Companion so his anonymity does not stop his narration from being accepted because all of the Companions are trustworthy, May Allaah be pleased with them.
Will the Muadhin say it during the adhaan thereby replacing haya ala salaah completely with it? What did the scholars say concerning the narrations?
That the muadhin should remove haya ala sallaah and replace it with pray in the houses is the opinion of some scholars of Hadeeth.
Indeed Al-Imaam Ibn Khuzaymah (may Allaah be merciful unto him), in his work, made it a chapter heading and Ibn Hibban followed him on that and likewise Muheeb At-Tabari: he
removed "haya alaa sallaah" on a rainy day. (See ath-Thamrul-Mustataab of Ash-Shaykh Al-Albaanee).
But Al-Imam Al-Albanee said in ath-Thamrul-Mustataab "additional statement is not established in adhaan except in two places, [he mentioned the first place then said] secondly when there is severe cold or rain, then he (the muadhin) should add after saying "hasten to success" or after completing the adhaan, 'pray in the houses' or he says 'there is no sin upon whoever sits in his house'. There are many Ahadeeth on it".
Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar (may Allaah be merciful to him) said: "Ibn Khuzaymah judged with the apparent meaning of the Hadeeth of Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him). He thought that saying "pray
in your dwellings" contradicts the phrase "hasten to prayer" but the two phrases are not conflicting. And it is possible to merge the two phrases without being contradictory. The phrase "pray in your houses" means "permission is granted he who wants to take it" i.e. he who wishes to pray in his house," and "hasten to salaah" would mean "permission is granted he who seeks to perfect the merits (by coming to the mosque) even if he encounters difficulty." This is corroborated by the Hadeeth of Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) "We went out with the Messenger of Allaah on a journey, so it rained. So he said: let
whoever wishes amongst you pray in his house”. (End of qoute from Ibn Hajar)
Imaam An-Nawawee said "And in the hadeeth of Ibn Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him), he stated that: Pray in your dwellings at the end of the adhaan; the two acts are permissible. (ibn Abbaas mentioned it replacing haya ala salaah). Al-Imaam Ash-Shafi’ee mentioned the two ways in Al 'Umm and many of our companions (Shafi’ees) followed his opinion. But saying it after the adhaan is better so that adhaan remains on its order." End of quote from Sharh Saheeh Muslim of Al-Imaam An-Nawawee.
Does one of rain, wind or cold suffice alone as an excuse or the combination of more than one?
Al-Imam At-Tirmidhee said "Scholars permit staying away from the congregational prayers and Jumu'ah because of rain and mud. This is what Ahmad (ibn Hanbal) and Ishaaq (ibn Rahawayh, the teacher of Imaam Al-Bukharee) said." Al-Mubarakfuuri said in Tuhfatul Awadhee "The narration in Abu 'Awaanah's book is an evidence that each of these is an independent reason (that necessitates praying at home)"
Can we stay away from Jum'ah because of these factors?
Al-Imaam Al-Bukharee made a chapter heading in his Saheeh, Book of Jum'ah, he said "Chapter on the Permissibility of Not Attending Jumu'ah Due to Rain."
He then quoted the hadeeth of ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) and his statement concerning those who detested his saying "saloo fee buyuutikum."
We understand from the Hadeeth of ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that this is permissible even if the worshippers are residents and not travelers for it occurred concerning the Jumu'ah Prayer.
Ibn AbdulBarr said, "There is in this, the evidence for the permissibility of delaying coming to the mosque for Jama'ah and Jum'ah during a continuous downpour because of the hardship involved ... " End of quote from At-Tamheed of Ibn AbdilBarr.
Al-Imam An-Nawawee said after quoting the Hadeeth of Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him): "It is said that it is muddy; and it is said heavy rain". And in this Hadeeth is an evidence for the elimination of the obligation of Jumuah because of rainfall.
The author of Kashshaaf al-Qinaa (1/495) said: 'Attendance at Jumu‘ah or prayers in congregation may be waived in the event of rain, mud, snow, ice or a cold wind on a dark night, because of the words of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him): The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) would ask his caller to call out on a cold or rainy night when travelling: 'Pray where you are'. It was also narrated from Ibn Maajah with a saheeh Isnaad, but he did not say “when travelling.” In the two saheeh, it was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he said to his muezzin on a rainy day - Muslim added that it was a Friday - and he narrated the hadeeth quoted above. And the same applies to snow, ice and cold.
End of qoute.
Since it is allowed to combine Zhuhr with Asr, and Magrib with 'Ishaa because of rain at the time of one of the two; is it permissible for the one who prays in his house to combine these prayers?
Al-Imam Ash-Shafi'ee said in AI-Umm, "A man does not combine the prayers (because of rain) in his house because the Prophet combined the prayers in the
mosque". This is understood from the fact that it is his going out to the mosque that entails hardship and not his praying at home and this is legislated to remove hardships.
Can Jum’ah and Asr be combined in a mosque for these reasons?
The eminent scholar, Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-Uthaymeen (may allaah be merciful unto him) said: "It is not correct to combine Jumu'ah Prayer with Asr because Jumu'ah is a separate prayer and merger of prayers was only mentioned regarding Zhuhr and Asr (and Maghrib and Ishaa) but there was no reference that the Prophet (sallalaahu 'alayhi wasallam) ever combined Jumu'ah with Asr and it is not right to make qiyaas of Jumu’ah with Zhuhr because of the differences (between Zhuhr and Jumu’ah) we mentioned earlier. Sharh Al-Mumti’ 4/403.
He also said: If someone were to ask: what is the evidence that it is not allowed to combine ‘Asr with Jumu’ah? The answer is that this question is not appropriate, because the basic principle concerning acts of worship is that they should not be done unless there is evidence that they should be done. So we should not question the one who is not doing a certain act of worship about his evidence, rather the one who is doing a certain act of worship should be asked for his evidence, because Allaah says, denouncing those who worship Allaah in ways that are not prescribed in Sharee’ah:
“Or have they partners with Allaah (false gods) who have instituted for them a religion which Allaah has not ordained?”[al-Shoora 42:21]
“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion”[al-Maa’idah 5:3]
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever does an action that is not part of this matter of ours (i.e., Islam), will have it rejected.”
'Based on this, if someone says: what is the evidence that it is not allowed to combine ‘Asr with Jumu’ah? We say: What is the evidence that it is permitted? The basic principle is that it is obligatory to offer ‘Asr on time; this principle may be waived when it is combined with another prayer when there is a reason for doing so, but at other times the principle still stands, which is that it should not be offered ahead of time.' End of quote from Majmoo’ FataawaIbn‘Uthaymeen 15/371-375.
[Editor's Note: Quoting from a number of scholars, such as Al-Imaam An-Nawaawee, Ash-Shaykh Mash'hoor Hasan Aal Salmaan (may Allaah preserve him), said it is permissible to do a merger of Jumu'ah and Asr Prayers due to rain since there is no evidence against. See his work, al-Jam'u Bayna As-Salatayn Fee al-Hadar Li'Uzril-Matar, pp.159-160. But the view of Ash-Shaykh Muhammad Saalih bn Al-Uthaymeen seems more plausible. Allaah knows best].
It is pertinent to emphasise that it is not permissible to join two prayers except for an excuse that dictates that, such as travel, rain or sickness. Ibn Abee Shaybah narrated that Abu Moosa Al-Ash’aree and ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with them) said: Joining two prayers without an excuse is a major sin (al-Musannaf 2/346).
And Allaah is the source of our strength. The preserver of the purified sunnah, the Imaam of the Muslims in knowledge and piety. Sufyaan bin ath-Thawree (may Allaah be merciful to him) said, "The angels are the guards of the heavens and the scholars of Hadeeth are the guards of the earth." May Allaah exalt their ranks in this world and the hereafter, preserve the living on and for good and have mercy on their dead. And this is how they preserve the Sunnah and may Allaah make us one of them.
May He exalt the mention of His Messenger, the Imaam of the people of Hadeeth, amongst the High Angels, send His Blessings on his purified household, noble companions and those who tread their path till the Day the hour will be established.