Shaykhul-Islâm Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allâh bestow mercy on him] answered:
All praise to Allâh the Lord of the words. The language with which the people will communicate on the Day of Resurrection is not known neither is the language with which they will hear the Address of the Mighty Lord known. Allâh the Mighty did not tell us anything about this or His Messenger [Sallalaahu alayhi wa sallam]. Thus it is not established that the language of the people of the Hell is Persian while that of the people of Jannah is Arabic. We are not aware of any controversy over this among the Companions rather all of them refrained from discussing such thing because discussing a matter like this is extraneous. Allâh indeed did not say anything to the people of earth about it.
However, there are a lot of opinions about that with the latter generation. Some said, it is Arabic while others exempted the people of Hell from it saying their own language is Persian. Others said the language is Suryanian because it was the language of Adam and from it other languages evolved. Others said the people of Jannah would speak in Arabic.
Meanwhile all these opinions are bereft of intellectual and textual basis for those who have put them up; they are rather claims far from proofs.
Allâh the Blessed and Mighty knows and is better in judgement.
Source: Majmoo Fatâwâ, vol.1 p.350
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