Hadeeth At-Talqeen (The narration of saying Laa IlaHa illa Llaha to a dying or a deceased person)

Thursday 02-Feb-2023, 12:43PM / 1069


Prelude: The hadeeth was named thus by Al-Ameer As-Sanaaanee (Subulu As Salaam vol.3 p.162 and 163, Al-Albaanee (Aayatul Bayinaat p.83 footnote no 1),Abdul Qadr Shaybatul Hamd (Fiqhul Islaam vol.3 p.69) and Ash-Shaykh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (Tasheel Al-Ilmaam vol.3 p.69).

Know may you be honoured - there are two rulings on at-Talqeen, viz:

1) Talqeen before death: Scholars unanimously agree upon on its permissibility, even its obligation is the most pleasing stance. This is the opinion of Ash-Shaukaanee (in As-Sayl Al-Jarraar) and Al Etiyiobee (in Al-Bahr).

2) After death: Its permissibility is disputed among the Pious Predecessors.Interestingly, many gone scholars in the Madh'haab Ash-Shaafiee, Ahmad, Abool Abbaas Al-Qurtubee, Imaam Al-Qurtubee (At Tadhkirah), Ibn Taymiyyah (in Al-Majmoo and Al-Iqtidaa), Ibn Qayyim (Kitaab Ar-Ruh), An-Nawaawee, Ibn Hajar (though later retract in Nataaij Al-Afkaar), Ibn Salah and others were of this position.

The narration that was named at-Talqeen (as mentioned in the prelude) is about the narration in which the second opinion depends on.


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Abu Umama said, "When I die, do with me as the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wasalam) ordered us, saying, 'When one of your brothers dies and you have smoothed over the earth upon his grave, let one of you stand at the head of the grave and say, "O So-and-so the Son of So-and-so" for he will hear, though he cannot reply - and then say, "O So-and-So, son of So-and-so," and he will say, "Direct me, Allah have mercy upon you mercy on you," though you will not hear it, but should say, "Remember the creed upon which you departed from this world, the testification that there is none worthy of worship but Allah, and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, and that you accepted Allah as your Lord, Islam as your religion, Muhammad peace be upon him as your prophet, and the Quran as your exemplar." For then the two angels Munkar and Nakir will take each other's hand and say, "Let us go, what is there to keep us beside someone who has been instructed how to make his plea?" A Man said, "O Messenger of Allah, what if one does not know the name of his mother?" and he answered, 'Then one should mention his descent from his mother Eve, saying, "O so-and-so son of Eve"

Sources: At-Tabaraanee in Al-Kabeer vol.8 p.298, Al-Haytamee in Az-Zawaaid vol.2 p.324, Talkhees Al-Habeer vol.2 pp.320-322, Maqaasid Al-Hasanah p.264, Ad-Daeefah vol.2 p.64 and Al-Irwaa vol.3 p.203.

Opinions of the Schools Of Thought

Hanafiyyah: They have three sayings: a) Talqeen should be done after death, because the soul would return for questioning.
b) Talqeen should not be done
c) It should neither be commanded not be prohibited.

Malikiyyah: Al-Imaam Malik prohibited it.

Shaafiyyah: It is recommended for matured either sane or insane even a martyr.

Hanaabilah: There is nothing from Al-Imaam Ahmad himself, but many of his comrades recommended talqeen after death.

Adh-Dhaahiriyyah: It should not be done. (Check Al-Mughnee with Sharh Al-Kabeer vol.1 pp.385-386 and Al-Ayaatul Bayyinah pp.87-91).

Wasiyyah Of The Aimmah Regarding Authentic Narrations

1) Al Imaam Aboo Haneefah and Ash-Shaafiee said; if the narration is authentic, it is my opinion.

2) Al Imaam Ahmad said: Neither blind follow me nor Maalik, or Ash Shafiee or Al Awzaee or At Thawree, rather take from where they took. (Check Sifatus Salah pp.45-55).

Al Imaam Al- Albaanee said( Al-Ayatul Bayyinah p.37): Truth is neither known with neither numerous nor fewness (of its upholders). It is only known with authentic evidence from the Book and authentic narration.

So, what is the truth regarding the hadeeth, is it authentic or otherwise?

Haythamee said: There are people who are unknown to me in the in the isnaad (chain of narration of the hadeeth) [Majma az-Zawaid 3/45 via Subulus Salaam vol.2 p.163].

Hafiz Ibn Hajar said "The chain is good. Diya( uddeen Al-Maqdasee) in his book of al-Ahkaam made it strong." [Talkhees al Habeer vol.2 p.143]. As-Sakhaawee also mentioned the like in Al-Maqaasid.

Ash-Shaukaanee said (Al Fawaaid Al Majmooah p.268): Regarding the statement of al-Haafidh (it has a good chain and has some corroborating evidences) opposes his statement in Nataaij Al Afkaar: the narration is strange, the chain of the narration is from two routes (and it is) extremely weak.

Ash Shaykh AbduLlaahi Al Fawzaan said (Minihatul Aalaam vol.5 p.355):No doubt, this can be relied on for two reasons:

First: This fits the principle of disparaging and endorsement and the opinion of the scholars as was previously mentioned. His statement in An Nataaij was later, because he ended At-Talkhees in 820 A.H. whilst the dictating of Al-Afkaar continuing till 852 A.H.

Second: Regarding his statement, the narration has corroborating evidences, there is glare indulgence in it, because the narration that he mentioned is not about at-Talqeen, it only about duaa, except what was reported from Damrah bn Habeeb, it has been previously mentioned that it it maqtu (a narration from Taabi) (and) it cannot be used as evidence.

Ash Shaykh Aadam Al Etiyiobee said (Al Bahr Al Muheet vol.20 p.137): Ash Shaykh Al Albaanee rahimahuLaahu had excelled in Irwaau Al Ghaleel (vol.3 pp.203-205) in explaining the mentioned hadeeth and weakened it. Check it, you will be benefited.

And, indeed the Shaykh really grasped most of the statements of the scholars of hadeeth with detailed takhreej on the narration.See also As Saheehah vol.2 pp.64-66 no 599).

Thus, Al Allaamah Izz bn Abdis Salaam was asked: Is talqeen of the deceased after burial and the standing of the instructor at the direction of is head good or bad?

Answer: Nothing from (the narration of) talqeen is authentic, it is an innovation.(Kitaab Al Fataawah pp.95-96). This is also the opinion ofAl Imaam Maalik, As Suyootee (in Al-Haawee), As Sanaaanee (in AsSubul), Ash Shawkaanee (in Al-Fawaaid), Al Uthaymeen (in Fath Dhil Jalaal and Sharh Al Iqtdaa), Saalih Al Fawzaan (in At Tasheel), Al Albaanee (in Ayaatul Bayyinah), AbduLlaahi Al Fawzaan (in Al Miniah) and Al Etiyiobee (in Al Bahr Al Muheet).

Inshaa Allaah, this is the best and authentic position, as a maxim says: Whatever is built on falsehood is in itself falsehood. Since the narration is weak, the opinion on its permissibility is weak, especially it deals with the issue of unseen, which needs clear cut and authentic evidence. So be objective and free yourself from the chain of blind following.

Allaah willing, the second part on this article will be on demystifying other seeming evidence about the hadeeth.