The Interconnection between Jahmiyyah, Kulaabiyyah, Mu'tazilah, Qadariyyah and Other Heretical Foundations

Sunday 06-Nov-2022, 3:22PM / 669

Translation by Aboo Khadeejah al-Atharee (2014), as culled from the book, Innovations, Inventions and Baseless Matters in Islaam, A Compilation Work of Mahmood Bn Abdillaah Al Matar, published by Daar Ibn Khuzaymah 

Shaykh Muhammad Bn Saalih Al Uthaymeen (may Allaah bestow his mercy on him) said:

The likes of the philosophers who claim to effect issues and acclaim Sunnah do opine that Tawheed is merely an understanding of Tawheed Ar Ruboobiyyah.[1]

According to the Sufis who claim understanding and knowledge, the highest degree of Tawheed is Ar Ruboobiyyah. It is known that the idolaters also has this believe and also a person does not become a Muslim with this believe  let alone to assume him a saint or one of the leading saints before Allaah.

Some sects also reiterate this form of Tawheed but deny some attributes. They thus fall into delinquency and the evil of ta’teel . This situation is worse than that which is found with most of the idolaters.

Jahm bn Safwaan, the leader of the Jahmiyyah sect is a denier of Allaah’s attributes. He hold extreme positions of ‘coercion’ regarding Qadar. He accords with the saying of the idolaters:

‘If Allaah had willed, we and our fathers would have associated naught in worship with Allaah and we would not have forbidden anything’. Although he differs with the idolaters in that he believes in commandments and prohibitions but he still believes in Irjaa’.  By so doing, commandments, prohibitions and retribution weakens before him since he considers the one who commits the major sins as a believer with a perfect Eemaan who is not worthy of retribution.

The Najaariyyah –the followers of Hussain bn Muhammad An Najaar- and the Dharaariyyah –the followers of Dharaar bn Amr  and Hafs Al Fard- are closer to the Jahm regarding the issue of Qadar and Eemaan. They are also closer to him regarding the denial of Allaah’s attributes.

The Kulaabiyyah –the followers of Abdullaah bn Sa’eed bn Kulaab - and the Ash’arees , the affiliates of Abul Hasan Al Ash’aree are better than the aforementioned sects with respect to Allaah’s attributes in that they established the ordinarily comprehensible attributes of Allaah (as Sifaatul aqliyyah) while their scholars do generally establish the informative attributes of Allaah (sifaatul khabariyyah). However, in matters concerning Qadar, Allaah’s names and rulings in the Sharee’ah, their positions are close to each another.

The followers of Ibn Kulaab such as Haarith Al Muhaasibee are better than the Ash’arees regarding the said beliefs.

The positions of the Karaamiyyah-the followers of Muhammad bn Karaam- concerning Allaah’s attributes, Qadar, promise of compensation (for the righteous) and threat of punishment (for the sinners) are most similar to the positions of philosophical sects which are contradictory to the sunnah. But concerning Eemaan, they have an ugly ideology which no one had hold such earlier. They regard Eemaan as the utterances of the mouth alone even if it does not involve the recognition f the soul. As a result, an hypocrite is a believer although he will remain eternally in Hell.

The Mu’tazillah – the followers of Waasil bn Attaa’ who deserted he company of Ibn Al Basree (may Allaah bestow his mercy on him) - have a similar believe to that of Jahm concerning the denial of the attributes of Allaah.  However, they differ with him concerning Qadar, Allaah’s names and rulings in the Sharee’ah. Concerning Qadar, they say that a slave of Allaah is dependent of his wills concerning his actions and as such, Allaah has no influence on his actions. There are lememnts of Shirk in this position of theirs.

Jahm do say: ‘a servant of Allaah undertakes his actions under coercion and he has no will over them’. Regarding the names and attributes of Allaah, the Mu’tazilah will say: ‘the one who commits the major sin is out of Eemaan but is not into Kufr, he is in a middle course. However, he will abide forever in Hell.’ Jahm would also says: ‘a believer with a perfect Eemaan can not be worthy of entry into the Hell’

In their differences regarding Qadar, names and attributes of Allaah and the leagal rulings in the Sharee’ah, the Mu’tazillah are better than the Jahmiyyah in the sense that the establishment of commandments, prohibitions, punishments and rewards with the negation of Qadar is better than the establishment of Qadar while commandments, prohibitions, punishments and rewards are being nullified. This was why it is not found that anybody negates commandments and prohibitions of the Sharee’ah during the time of the companions although there are the Qadariyyah, the Khawaarij then.

The lesser Innovational practices are usually the first to appear and the more there is weakness I the message of the prophets, the more strength is gained by Bid’ah. Also, the nearer a man is to the Salaf and the scholars, the more relevant and better is his statements.

The Sufis, who claim better understanding of life while they reject commandments and prohibitions of the Sharee’ah  are worse than the Qadariyyah, the Mu’tazillah and the likes. The reason being that theses Sufis do imitate the idolaters who say:

لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا (148)

‘If Allaah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him’ (Al An’aam: 148)

The Qadariyyah are similar to the Magians who say: ‘there are two creators in existence’ and as such, the idolaters are worse than the Magians.

But for those Sufis who have some reverence for commandments and prohibitions with the believe in Tawheed Ar Ruboobiyyah and the believe in Qadar are better than the Mu’tazilah. However, they are also, Mu’tazilah in the sense that they regard Tawheed Ar Ruboobiyyah as the utmost form of Tawheed. With that, they have deserted the Muslim group and their practices. Sometimes, the Bid’ah they enter into might be worse than the Bid’ah of the Mu’tazilahs.

All of the above mentioned sects fall into aberrations and Bid’ah with respect to the level of their deviance from the Muslim group and their practices. The Deen of Allaah is that which the Messengers(salla laahu alayhim wa aalihim wa sallam) and their books were sent with. It is the forthright path, the path of the Messenger of Allaah (salla laahu alayhi wa aalihee wa sallam) and his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) who are the best community of people.

Allaah has commanded that we utter in our prayers:

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ (6) صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ (7)

‘Guide us to the forthright path. The path of those whom you favored, not the path of those with whom you are angry and not (the path of ) those who are astray’ (Al Faatihah: 6,7)

Those upon whom is anger such as the Jews know the truth but do not follow it. Those who are astray such as the Christians worship Allaah without knowledge. It is said: ‘seek refuge with Allaah from the evil of an unchaste scholar and an ignorant worshipper. Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah bestow His mercy on him) has also said: ‘the Messenger of Allaah (salla llaahu alayhi wa aalihee wa sallam) drew a line with his hand and said: “This is the forthright path of Allaah”. He also make other marks by its left and right sides and said: “These are paths and there is none among them except that there is a Shaytaan upon it making invitation to it.” He then recited the following verse:

وَأَنَّ هَذَا صِرَاطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ (153)

‘And verily, this (i.e. Allaah’s Commandments mentioned in the above two verses 151 and 152) is my straight path, so, follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path’ (Al An’aam: 153)’ [2]

Hudhayfah bn Al Yamaan (may Allaah bestow His mercy on him) said: ‘O you reciters! Be forthright and chose the path of those before you. By Allaah, if you would follow them, you would have gone far ahead. But if you would turn right and left, you would have gone far astray’. Abdullaah bn Mas’ood (may Allaah bestow His mercy on him) also says: ‘whoever among you would follow a tradition, let him follow the tradition of those who are dead (among the pious predecessors). This is because, the living is not insured against trial. Those companions of Muhammad (salla llaahu alayhi wa aalihee wa sallam) posses the best minds, the most in-depth knowledge and make least assumptions among the Ummah. They are a people Allaah has chosen to accompany His Prophet (salla laahu alayhi wa aalihee wa sallam) and to establish His religion. As such, give them their due regards and adhere to their line of conduct for they are upon a forthright path ’.

We beseech Allaah to make us among them and not to deviate our souls after we have been guided. To Allaah all praise is due.

(Culled from: majmoo’ fataawaa war rasaa’il (a collection of verdicts and articles) by Shaykh Muhammad Bn Saalih Al Uthaymeen (may Allaah bestow his mercy on him) (4/252))

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[1] The believe in the Lordship of Allaah as one of the three branches of Tawheed according to the Ahlus sunnah wal jamaa’ah. - Translator.

[2] Reported by Ahmad in al musnad (# 1/435), An Nasaa’ee (#   1174) IBn Maajah  (#   11) and  Al Albaanee’s Saheeh Sunan Bn Maajah (#   11). Ahmad Shaakir also authenticated its chain of transmission, see al musnad (#   4142).