Fiq'h of Ramadan

Sunday 11-Nov-2018, 9:49AM / 879

When Do You Begin the Fasting?
(( صوموا لرؤيته وأفطرو لرؤيته فإن غم عليكم فأكملوا عدة شعبان ثلاثين ))
'Fast upon sighting the crescent (of the month of Ramadan) and end the fasting upon sighting (the crescent) but if there is a blockage by the cloud, then complete the counting (of the days) of Shaban'


How Many Persons Must Sight the Hilaal?

[Abdullâh] Ibn Mubârak, Ahmad and ash-Shâfi'î (in one of his two opinions) are of the view of appropriateness of working with the testimony of one man (for the commencement of fasting of Ramadan). Al-Imâm an-Nawawî said: 'That is the most correct opinion.

When Should the Intention for Fasting Come?

The person that wants to fast must have the intention of fasting before the Fajr (i.e. dawn), the proof for that is the hadith recorded on the authority of Hafsah (one of the wives of the Messenger of Allâh – Sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam) – may Allâh be pleased with her – that the Messenger of Allâh – Sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam – said:
(( من لم يجمع الصيام قبل الفجر فلا صيام له ))
'Whoever has not made the intention of fasting before the Fajr has no fast.' The hadith is recorded by Ahmad, the Collectors of Sunan, Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibbân – both authenticated it.

Intentional and Non-Intentional Eating and Drinking

That the fasting will become spoiled by intentional acts of eating and drinking, there is no controversy over that. As for when that is done out of forgetfulness, then the fasting is intact due to the proof that is contained in the Sahîhayn and other books in the hadith recorded on the authority of Abu Hurairah – may Allâh be pleased with him – who said the Messenger of Allâh – Sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam – said:
(( من نسي وهو صائم فأكل أو شرب فليتم صيومه فالله أطعمه وسقاه ))
'Whoever forgets and eats or drinks while he is fasting should complete his fasting it is Allâh that feeds and gives him drink.'

Intentional Act of Vomiting

Intentional act of vomiting, the proof for that is the hadith recorded on the authority of Abu Hurairah – may Allâh be pleased with him – that the Prophet – Sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam – said:
(( من ذرعه القئ فليس عليه قضاء ومن استقاء عمدا فليقض ))
'Whoever is overpowered by vomit (such that he vomited), there is no make-up due from him. But whoever induces vomiting must make-up for the day.' The hadith above is recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dâwud, at-Tirmidhî, Ibn Mâjah, Ibn Hibbân, ad-Dâraqutnî and al-Hâkim who authenticated it.

Hastening to Break the Fast, Delaying the Pre-Dawn Meal [Suhuur]

It is meritorious to hasten the breaking of fast (at sunset) and to delay the pre-dawn meal, the proof for that is the hadith recorded on the authority of Sahl bn Sa'd – may Allâh be pleased with him – that the Prophet – Sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam – said:
(( لايزال الناس بخير ما عجلوا الفطر ))
'People will not cease to be upon goodness so far they hasten the breaking of fast.' The hadith can be found in the Sahîhayn and other works. Also on the authority of Abu Dharr – may Allâh be pleased with him – that the Prophet – Sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam – said:
(( لا تزال أمتى بخير ماأخروا السحور وعجلوا الفطر ))
'My people will not cease to be upon goodness so far they delay the pre-dawn meal and hasten the breaking of fast.' Ahmad recorded the hadith but there is Salmân bn Abee Uthmân in its chain; Abu Hâtim said: 'He is unknown.' But it has been established in the Sahîhayn and other works, a hadith recorded on the authority of Zayd bn Thâbit – may Allâh be pleased with him, that the distance between the pre-dawn meal of the Messenger of Allâh – Sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam – and his commencement of Prayer is a distance of recitation of fifty Verses.

Who Is Exempted from Fasting?

An old person who cannot fast or make up days of fasting will expiate with what was mentioned, the proof for that is the hadith recorded on the authority of Salamah bn al-Ak'wa' – may Allâh be pleased with him – that is established in the Sahîhayn and other books wherein he (Salamah) said: 'This Verse: …and as for those who can fast with difficulty, they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a poor person (for every day)...' was revealed, whoever did not want to fast would feed (a poor person) instead until the Verse that came after it was revealed which came to abrogate the earlier one. This hadith is recorded by Ahmad and Abu Dâwud on the authority of Muâdh but it is like the hadith that was earlier mentioned. Meanwhile there is an addition: 'Then Allâh revealed this Verse:…So whoever of you sights (the crescent of) the month (of Ramadân), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month… thus Allâh established the fasting in the month upon those at home who are healthy, but gave respite therein to those who are sick and the travellers. Feeding the poor became established for the old ones who cannot fast.' Al-Bukhâri recorded on the authority of Ibn Abbaas – may Allâh be pleased with him – that he said: 'The Verse is not abrogated; it (the respite therein) is for the old men and women who cannot fast thus they will feed a poor person in lieu of each day.' Abu Dâwud also recorded on the authority of Ibn Abbaas – may Allâh be pleased with him – that he said: 'It became established for the pregnant women and the nursing mothers to refrain from fasting but feed a poor person in lieu of each day.' Ad-Dâraqutnî and al-Hâkim recorded a hadith, which both of them held to be authentic, on the authority of Ibn Abbaas – may Allâh be pleased with him – that he said: 'It was made a respite for an old man (and woman) to refrain from fasting but should feed a poor person in lieu of each day; he need not make up for the day.' This statement from Ibn Abbaas – may Allâh be pleased with him – is an explanation of what is contained in the Qur'ân with what that statement also contained of the feeling of being an actual statement of the Messenger of Allâh – Sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam – that will therefore serve as a proof that expiation is feeding a poor person for each day (that is missed).