AL-KABĪR, AL-HAYY, AL-QAYYŪM: Conceptualizing TAWHEED - Al-Asmaa wa Sifaat Part XVIII

Tuesday 03-Sep-2019, 7:42AM / 229

Adaptation and Translation and Compilation by Abu Aamaal Misbaah Olagunju


Bismillaah-ir-Rahmaan-ir-Raheem

EXPLANATION OF THE PERFECT NAMES AND THE LOFTY ATTRIBUTES

[52] AL-KABĪR

Allah the exalted said:

عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَیۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَـٰدَةِ ٱلۡكَبِیرُ ٱلۡمُتَعَالِ
"All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, Al-Kabīr, the Most High" [Surah Ar-Ra'd 9]

Al-Kabīr
He is grandiose in His essence, in His description and in His actions, there is nothing greater than Him, rather everything other than Him is little in the presence of His magnificence and grandiose 

Points from the Exemplary Principles

Shaykh Bin Saalih Al-Uthaymeen said in Qawā'id al-Muthlā:

Part III: Principles regarding the evidences of the Names and Attributes.

Second Principle is: The obligation regarding the texts of the Qur’an and the Sunnah is implementing them upon their apparent meanings without any forms of tahreef (alteration/distortion/deflection), most importantly the texts regarding Allah’s attributes since there is no room for supposition in them.

The Shaykh (Allah be merciful with him) said in “Asmaa'uLlahi waSifaatuhu waMawqifu Ahlul Sunnah minhaa": The ahlu-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah would dissociate from tahreef (distortion of texts), and used to consider it to be a serious crime with revelational texts, and that it is impossible that Allah speaks to us about something and intended a different meaning from its apparent meaning without clarifying that to us, and Allah has indeed revealed the book as an explanation to all things, and the prophet (Allah raise his rank and grant him peace) explained to the people what has been revealed to them from their Lord by the permission of their Lord.

The Shaykh said in “Fathu Rabbil Bariyah": At-Tahreef in language means At-Tagyeer (Alteration/Changing).

And in its technical usage it means: Alteration of revelational text in its Lafz (phonation) or in its ma'na' (meaning). And tagyeer al-lafzyy will sometimes alter the meaning along with it and at other times it wouldn’t, then this is classified into three (3) categories:

Tahreef Lafzyy yatagayara ma'ahu al-ma'na (Alteration in phonation that alters the meaning along with it): like the tahreef of some of them on the statement of the exalted: 

(وَكَلَّمَ ٱللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكۡلِیمࣰا)
“And to Muusa (Moses) Allah spoke directly.” [Surat An-Nisa' 164]

They altered it by changing Allah (nasaba al-jalaalah) to the object of the sentence; to make the speaking be from Muusa.

Tahreef Lafzyy laa yatagayara ma'ahu al-ma’na (Alteration in phonation that does not alter the meaning): like changing the ‘domma’ to ‘fat'ah' in the letter ‘dal' from His statement the exalted: 

(ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِینَ)
"All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin" - [Surat Al-Fatihah 2]

And usually this wouldn’t occur except from an ignorant person, as there is mostly no intended objective for doing it.

Tahreef Ma'nawyy (Alteration in meanings): It is deflecting the lafz from its apparent meaning without any evidence (demanding it); like the distortion of the meaning of the two hands associated to Allah to mean Al-Quwah (strength) and An-Ni'mah (grace) and whatever is similar to that.


 [53] AL-HAYY

Allah the exalted said:

ٱللَّهُ لَاۤ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡحَیُّ ٱلۡقَیُّومُ
"Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), Al-Hayy, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists." [Surah Aal-E-Imran 2]

Al-Hayy
He is the one with absolute perpetual existence, and a subsistence with no beginning or end, and all subsisting lives are surely from Him the One far removed from all blemishes and exalted above all creation.

Points from the Exemplary Principles

Shaykh Bin Saalih Al-Uthaymeen said in Qawā'id al-Muthlā:

Part III: Principles regarding the evidences of the Names and Attributes.

Second Principle is: The obligation regarding the texts of the Qur’an and the Sunnah is implementing them upon their apparent meanings without any forms of tahreef (alteration/distortion/deflection), most importantly the texts regarding Allah’s attributes since there is no room for supposition in them.

Once again this is another important principle; That the obligation regarding the texts of the book and the sunnah is that they are applied upon their apparent meaning – as will come in the proofs—, most importantly the texts of attributes; because the texts regarding the attributes are from the hidden affairs for which there exist no allowance for the intellect in them until they have been determined, then it is said: this is what is implied by it’s apparent… or something similar to that, and we submit to these texts and employ them upon the meanings apparent from them, with the conviction that it’s apparent cannot imply falsehood.

Take for example, if someone were to say: what is apparent from the exalted’s statement:

(بَلۡ یَدَاهُ مَبۡسُوطَتَانِ)
"Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched." - [Surat Al-Ma'idah 64]

Is that He has two hands similar to the hands of the creations. 

Then we will say: we do not understand from what is apparent from His statement, the exalted (بَلۡ یَدَاهُ مَبۡسُوطَتَانِ) that the hands are similar to the hands of the creations, rather what we understood is that the two hands are suiting for Allah the exalted, similar to: if I were to say that the cat have two hands, not as single person will say what is apparent from that expression is that the two hands of the cat is like those of mankind, then whilst the expression Al-yadayn (two hands) is associated with the cat it’s meaning remains befitting for the cat.


[54] AL-QAYYŪM

Allah the exalted said:

ٱللَّهُ لَاۤ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡحَیُّ ٱلۡقَیُّومُ
"Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), Al-Hayy, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists." [Surah Aal-E-Imran 2]

Al-Qayyūm
He is the one existing all by Himself. He is self subsistent from needing His creations, and He is the sustainer of all that is in the heavens and the earth and they are all destitute in need of Him.

Points from the Exemplary Principles

Shaykh Bin Saalih Al-Uthaymeen said in Qawā'id al-Muthlā:

Part III: Principles regarding the evidences of the Names and Attributes.

Second Principle is: The obligation regarding the texts of the Qur’an and the Sunnah is implementing them upon their apparent meanings without any forms of tahreef (alteration/distortion/deflection), most importantly the texts regarding Allah’s attributes since there is no room for supposition in them.

And similarly if I say: the ant have two hands, not a single person among the people will understand by this statement that they two hands of a ant is like the hands of a camel or an elephant… or other than them, then as long as the hand is associated with the ant, it is known that the hands is like the hands of an ant.

Therefore the apparent meaning from the texts regarding the names and attributes is the meaning suiting for Allah; this is why it is obligatory for us to implement them upon their apparent meanings, and not upon the path of comparison but rather upon the meaning befitting for Allah the one free of all blemishes, the exalted; because whenever description is annexed to the described, that will demand that the description is suiting for it (what it describes).

If I say: “I grip the handle of the glass cup with my hand" no one will understand from this statement that the handle of the glass cup is similar to my hand, and this is one sentence, yet what is understood from the hand associated with the glass cup, is different from what is understood from the hand associated with the one who gripped. 


Adapted and Translated from:
Aahkaamu Tahamul Muslim
Sharhu Qawaa'idul Muthlaa'