AL-AZĪZ, AL-JABBĀR, AL-MUTAKABBIR: Conceptualizing TAWHEED - Al-Asmaa wa Sifaat Part XVII

Tuesday 03-Sep-2019, 8:55AM / 215

Adaptation and Translation by Abu Aamaal Misbaah Olagunju


Bismillaah-ir-Rahmaan-ir-Raheem

EXPLANATION OF THE PERFECT NAMES AND THE LOFTY ATTRIBUTES

[49] AL-AZĪZ

Allah the exalted said:

هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِی لَاۤ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ ٱلۡمُهَیۡمِنُ ٱلۡعَزِیزُ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَكَبِّرُۚ
He is Allah than Whom there is La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. [Surah Al-Hashr: 23]

Al-Azīz
To him belongs everything considered honour; the honour of power for nothing topples Him, and the honour of abstention for He is not in want from anyone, and the honour of dominance and subjugation for nothing makes a move except by His permission

Points from the Exemplary Principles

Shaykh Bin Saalih Al-Uthaymeen said in Qawā'id al-Muthlā:

Part III: Principles regarding the evidences of the Names and Attributes.

First Principle: The evidences by which the names and attributes of Allah —the exalted— are established are the Book of Allah (Qur'an) and the Sunnah (tradition) of His prophet (Muhammad):

If someone were to say; Allah does not have Jism (body), and another person says; Allah have a body: because He ascends over the majestic throne, and descends to the earth’s heaven, and comes to adjudicate between His servants, and takes hold of charity and nurtures it with His palm, and does other similar things to these.

So the first said He is not a body while the second said He is a body

What is required is clarification; because those who negated having a body for Allah claims that affirmation of any attributes which demands having a body: then they say bodies have similitude; Allah does not ascend over the majestic throne; because if you say He did it imply the meaning that He is a body, and they say Allah does not descend; because if you say He did it will imply that He is a body, and they say Allah will no not come to adjudicate between His servants; because if it was to be then it will imply that He is a body.
So they are saying Allah does not have real hand, if He does he will be a body… and so forth, so these people negates attributes by this argument.

Then where do these people see the negation of Jism for Allah in the Qur’an or the sunnah, if someone were to affirm that Allah have a body, and he says: “I say Allah have a body"; then we will ask him to present proof that Allah is not a body, and he will not be able to, and if he ask us to provide the proof that Allah have a body the response would be: The evidence does not exist.


[50] AL-JABBĀR

Allah the exalted said:

هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِی لَاۤ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ ٱلۡمُهَیۡمِنُ ٱلۡعَزِیزُ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَكَبِّرُۚ
He is Allah than Whom there is La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, Al-Muhaymīn, the All-Mighty, Al-Jabaar, the Supreme. [Surah Al-Hashr: 23]

Al-Jabbār
He is the one with overwhelming will and all creatures are subjugated to Him, humbled before His grandeur, yielding to His judgement, and He aids the broken and enriches the poor, makes easy the arduous and relieve the sick and the afflicted.

Points from the Exemplary Principles

Shaykh Bin Saalih Al-Uthaymeen said in Qawā'id al-Muthlā:

Part III: Principles regarding the evidences of the Names and Attributes.

First Principle: The evidences by which the names and attributes of Allah —the exalted— are established are the Book of Allah (Qur'an) and the Sunnah (tradition) of His prophet (Muhammad):

And we say therefore do not affirm that Allah is a body nor negate that He isn’t a body, rather clarify from the meaning and affirm the meaning which is true and negate the false meaning, as for the lafz (expression/phonation) then leave it alone, do not say: Allah is not a body nor say: Allah is a body, leave off this expression; because this expression was not spoken of in the Qur’an and the sunnah and also not used by the companions. 

And our clarification in it based on what he intended by the meaning of Al-Jism (body) goes thus:

If he says: I intended by the meaning of Al-Jism; something integrated from members and parts and whatever is similar to that.

We will say: this meaning is rejected for Allah and negation of Al-Jism upon this interpretation is correct.

If he says: I negate Al-Jism and what I intended is the negation of something which exists by itself and is described by attributes which befits it.

Then we will say: negation of Al-Jism upon this interpretation is incorrect, rather Allah is by this meaning of Jism, that is:; He exists by Himself (independently) having attributes which are befitting to Him, from ascendancy over the majestic throne, and descent towards the earth’s heaven… and whatever is similar to these.

Therefore the lafz (phonation/expression) of Al-Jism affirmed upon generalization is erroneous and its negation upon generalization is equally erroneous, and making this clarification in it’s meaning is compulsory.

[51] AL-MUTAKABBIR

Allah the exalted said:

هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِی لَاۤ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ ٱلۡمُهَیۡمِنُ ٱلۡعَزِیزُ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَكَبِّرُۚ
He is Allah than Whom there is La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, Al-Muhaymīn, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, Al-Mutakabir. [Surah Al-Hashr: 23]

Al-Mutakabbir
He is the grandiose, the one enormous from every kinds of evil and defect, and far removed from being unjust to His servants, the Subduer of His creatures insolence, He is the one described by pride and whoever contends with Him in that He shatters and punishes.

Points from the Exemplary Principles

Shaykh Bin Saalih Al-Uthaymeen said in Qawā'id al-Muthlā:

Part III: Principles regarding the evidences of the Names and Attributes.

First Principle: The evidences by which the names and attributes of Allah —the exalted— are established are the Book of Allah (Qur'an) and the Sunnah (tradition) of His prophet (Muhammad):

As for in it’s lafz, then we do not say Allah is a body, and neither do we say Allah is not a body; and this is why fault is found with this statement of As-Safaaraniy —rahimahullah—:

وليس ربنا بجوهر ولا جسم     ولا عرض تعالى ذو العلو
And our Lord is not a being and He is not a body # And He is not manifest the most high the sublime.

And for this reason our Shaykh AbdurRahman As-Sadiy rahimahullah replaced it with his statement:

ليس الإله مشبها عبيده    في الوصف مع أسمائه العديد
He is not a God who shares similarities with His slaves # In His description as well as His numerous names.

And this is true in reality, however his statement “our Lord is not a being”; so what made him to know this?, and his statement “and not a body"; what made him to know this?, and his statement “and He is not manifest”; what made him to know this?, and he had the freedom of keeping quiet in them like Allah and His messenger —Allah raise his rank and grant him peace— kept quiet in them, for nothing affirms in the Qur’an that He is a body, and nothing negates that He is not a body either, and it is also like that with the companions.

However this matters was birthed by the rhetorician innovators; to achieve by them a corrupt interpretation, then deceive the common folks and those who does not have sound knowledge, they they are saying the truth and that it is the peak of sanctification of Allah the mighty and sublime, so they negate attributes through the likes of this means.

And the summary is: this important principle in your argument with people who affirms or rejects something for Allah; say to them present your proof, and if you are not able to then keep quiet, do not affirm nor negate, and the interpretations which are true you affirm them for Allah, while you negate the defective interpretations for Him.

Adapted and Translated from:
Aahkaamu Tahamul Muslim
Sharhu Qawaa'idul Muthlaa'