My Religion Taught Me...(XI)

Saturday 10-Oct-2020, 7:23AM / 170

Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem

 سلسلة علّمني ديني
My Religion Taught Me...

By: Shaykh Muhammad bin Umar Bāzmūl –hafidhahullah–

Translations and Annotations by Misbaah Olagunju (Abu Aamaal)

[11] My Religion Taught Me:

مراعاة الرأي العام فيما لا يخالف سرع الله تعالى

Deference (consideration) for the all-inclusive view in matters which does not conflict with the injunctions of Allah the exalted;

Did you not observe that the messenger of Allah —Allah raise his rank and grant him peace— abandoned killing the hypocrites and rather acknowledged what is apparent from them (Eemaan), so that it will not be said that Muhammad is killing his companions.

On the authority of Jaabir —Allah be pleased with him and his father—, he said:

أَخْبَرَنِيعَمْرُو بْنُ دِينَارٍ ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ جَابِرًا رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ يَقُولُ : غَزَوْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقَدْ ثَابَ مَعَهُ نَاسٌ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ حَتَّى كَثُرُوا، وَكَانَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ رَجُلٌ لَعَّابٌ، فَكَسَعَ أَنْصَارِيًّا، فَغَضِبَ الْأَنْصَارِيُّ غَضَبًا شَدِيدًا، حَتَّى تَدَاعَوْا وَقَالَ الْأَنْصَارِيُّ : يَا لَلْأَنْصَارِ. وَقَالَ الْمُهَاجِرِيُّ : يَا لَلْمُهَاجِرِينَ. فَخَرَجَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ : " مَا بَالُ دَعْوَى أَهْلِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ ؟ " ثُمَّ قَالَ : " مَا شَأْنُهُمْ ؟ " فَأُخْبِرَ بِكَسْعَةِ الْمُهَاجِرِيِّ الْأَنْصَارِيَّ. قَالَ : فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : " دَعُوهَا فَإِنَّهَا خَبِيثَةٌ ". وَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أُبَيٍّ ابْنُ سَلُولَ : أَقَدْ تَدَاعَوْا عَلَيْنَا ؟ { لَئِنْ رَجَعْنَا إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ لَيُخْرِجَنَّ الْأَعَزُّ مِنْهَا الْأَذَلَّ }. فَقَالَ عُمَرُ : أَلَا نَقْتُلُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَذَا الْخَبِيثَ ؟ - لِعَبْدِ اللَّهِ - فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : " لَا يَتَحَدَّثُ النَّاسُ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقْتُلُ أَصْحَابَهُ ".

Narrated Jaabir: We were in the company of the Prophet (ﷺ) on an expedition, and a large number of people had joined him from amongst the Muhaajireen, and there was a man among the Muhaajireen who is very playful; so he (jokingly) struck an Ansaari man on the buttocks, so the Ansaari became so enraged that both the Ansaari and the Muhaajir started calling upon their people. The Ansaari said, "Help, O Ansaar!" And the Muhaajir said; "Help, O Muhaajiruun!" Then the Prophet (ﷺ) came out and said; "What is wrong with the people calling this call of the period of Ignorance?" Then he said, "What is the matter with them?" So he was informed about the striking of the Ansari by the Muhaajir, the Prophet (ﷺ) then said, "Stop this (calling of enmity) for it is an evil call". Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Saluul (a hypocrite) then said; "So you (Muhaajiruun) have ganged up against us, indeed when we return to Medina, surely the more honorable people will expel therefrom the abased!", Upon that `Umar said; "Shouldn't we kill this obnoxious one O messenger of Allah! (referring to `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Saluul)?" Then the  Prophet (ﷺ) said, "No, lest the people should say that Muhammad used to kill his companions."" - [Sahih al-Bukhari 3518, Sahih Muslim: 2584]

And the verdict on the hypocrite is execution; because the prophet acknowledged Umar bin Khattab (his suggestion to kill him) but he abandoned killing this hypocrite because of what he fears of the resultant harm that killing him might bring about, and rather accepted from him what is apparent from him (Eemaan), and in this diplomacy (exhibited by the prophet) is being satisfied with the easiest of two harms.

And in it is an important affair, and that is: deference for the all-inclusive (more beneficial) view. And what's your take on today's world, which has become like a small village, and what has emmanated from some of the conducts and behaviours of some Muslim in form of distortion and misrepresentation of Islam and the Muslims!

Translator's notes:

The Shaykh yet again alluded to another significant lesson from the teaching of the messenger —Allah raise his rank and grant him peace—; and that is his vivid insight and deliberate thought process which allowed him deference for the more important goal even when it seemed to many around him an unpleasant choice at the time, his decisions has always been driven by the broad and all-inclusive benefit as long as preferring that cause of approach does not contravene the Sharee'ah. 

This was the situation in the report mentioned above and it is from the explanation of the verse from al-Munafiquun where Allah the exalted said:

یَقُولُونَ لَىِٕن رَّجَعۡنَاۤ إِلَى ٱلۡمَدِینَةِ لَیُخۡرِجَنَّ ٱلۡأَعَزُّ مِنۡهَا ٱلۡأَذَلَّۚ وَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡعِزَّةُ وَلِرَسُولِهِۦ وَلِلۡمُؤۡمِنِینَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ ٱلۡمُنَـٰفِقِینَ لَا یَعۡلَمُونَ

"They (hyprocrites) say: "If we return to Al-Madinah, indeed the more honourable ('Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Saluul, the chief of hyprocrites at Al-Madinah) will expel therefrom the meaner (i.e. Allah's Messenger)." But honour, power and glory belong to Allah, His Messenger (Muhammad), and to the believers, but the hypocrites know not" - [Surah Al-Munafiqun: 8]

As-Sa'di said; explaining the verse; "This was when the hypocrisy of the hypocrites became manifest (due to what ensued at ghazwatu muraysee'), and what they harbour in their minds became apparent. 

And their leader, Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Saluul said: Our similitude with these people (the Muhaajiruun) is exactly as the sayer had said: "Your dog has hurriedly begin to eat you"

And he said: "If we return to Al-Madinah, indeed the more honourable will expel therefrom the abased", claiming that him and his brethren from the hypocrites are the honourable while the messenger and those who are with him are the abased."" - [Tafseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahman, al-Munafiquun: 8]

Even when it is clear that the judgement of the hypocrite is execution as affirmed by the prophet —Allah raise his rank and grant him peace— when Umar suggested it, yet he left off killing Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Saluul al-Munafiq as an allowance for a lesser evil, so as to ward off a bigger one. And the ulamah has made this an established maxim employed in resolving jurisprudencial matters with similar characteristics.

They say: 

إذا اجتمعت مفسدتان واضطر الإنسان إلى فعل إحداهما ارتكب أخفهما ضرورا

"Whenever two evils collude and a person is constrained to choosing one of them, he should commit the one with lesser harm" - [Al-Kawaakibul Duuriyyah: 32]
And also:

درء المفاسد يقادم على جلب المصالح

"Warding off evils takes precedence over attracting benefits" - [Al-Kawaakibul Duuriyyah: 29]

Another similar instance where the prophet had exhibited deference (consideration) for the all-inclusive view to ward off a greater evil by giving precedence to that, over attainment of benefit, is what ensued between the Muslims and the mushrikuun of Makkah at Hudaybiyyah which led to them signing a peace treaty. He tolerated them and gave consideration to their demands regardless of how heavy and loathsome they were on his companions—Allah be pleased with them all— So much so, that Umar had to ask again to ascertain if the Muslims are in the right!

 حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو وَائِلٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا بِصِفِّينَ فَقَامَ سَهْلُ بْنُ حُنَيْفٍ فَقَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّهِمُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ فَإِنَّا كُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ، وَلَوْ نَرَى قِتَالاً لَقَاتَلْنَا، فَجَاءَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَلَسْنَا عَلَى الْحَقِّ وَهُمْ عَلَى الْبَاطِلِ فَقَالَ ‏‏ بَلَى ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَلَيْسَ قَتْلاَنَا فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَقَتْلاَهُمْ فِي النَّارِ قَالَ ‏"‏ بَلَى ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَعَلَى مَا نُعْطِي الدَّنِيَّةَ فِي دِينِنَا أَنَرْجِعُ وَلَمَّا يَحْكُمِ اللَّهُ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُمْ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، وَلَنْ يُضَيِّعَنِي اللَّهُ أَبَدًا ‏"‏‏.‏ فَانْطَلَقَ عُمَرُ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ مِثْلَ مَا قَالَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ إِنَّهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، وَلَنْ يُضَيِّعَهُ اللَّهُ أَبَدًا‏.‏ فَنَزَلَتْ سُورَةُ الْفَتْحِ، فَقَرَأَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى عُمَرَ إِلَى آخِرِهَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَوَفَتْحٌ هُوَ قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏"

Narrated Abu Wail —Allah be pleased with him—: We were in Siffin and Sahl bin Hunaif got up and said, "O people! Blame yourselves! We were with the Prophet (ﷺ) on the day of Hudaybiyyah, and if we had been called to fight, we would have fought. But `Umar bin Al-Khattab came and said, 'O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! Aren't we in the right and our opponents in the wrongs' Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, 'Yes.' `Umar said, 'Aren't our killed persons in Paradise and their's in Hell?' He said, 'Yes.' `Umar said, 'Then why should we accept hard terms in matters concerning our religion? Shall we return before Allah judges between us and them?' Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, 'O Ibn Al-Khattab! I am the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never degrade me. Then `Umar went to Abu Bakr and told him the same as he had told the Prophet. On that Abu Bakr said (to `Umar). 'He is the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never degrade him.' Then Surah al-Fath (i.e. Victory) was revealed and Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) recited it till the end in front of `Umar. On that `Umar asked, 'O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! Was it (i.e. the Hudaybiyah Treaty) a victory?' Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Yes". - [Sahih al-Bukhari 3182]

And apart from the fact that they refused to allow the scribe of the Muslims at Hudaybiyyah, Ali bin Abee Taalib —Allah be pleased with him— to refer to Allah as Ar-Rahman nor acknowledge the messengership of Muhammad —Allah raise his rank and grant him peace— in the treaty, Az-Zhuri said in his report:

قَالَ الزُّهْرِيُّ فِي حَدِيثِهِ فَجَاءَ سُهَيْلُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو فَقَالَ هَاتِ، اكْتُبْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ كِتَابًا، فَدَعَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْكَاتِبَ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ سُهَيْلٌ أَمَّا الرَّحْمَنُ فَوَاللَّهِ مَا أَدْرِي مَا هُوَ وَلَكِنِ اكْتُبْ بِاسْمِكَ اللَّهُمَّ‏.‏ كَمَا كُنْتَ تَكْتُبُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ وَاللَّهِ لاَ نَكْتُبُهَا إِلاَّ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ اكْتُبْ بِاسْمِكَ اللَّهُمَّ ‏"‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ هَذَا مَا قَاضَى عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ سُهَيْلٌ وَاللَّهِ لَوْ كُنَّا نَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ مَا صَدَدْنَاكَ عَنِ الْبَيْتِ وَلاَ قَاتَلْنَاكَ، وَلَكِنِ اكْتُبْ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ وَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَإِنْ كَذَّبْتُمُونِي‏.‏ اكْتُبْ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ الزُّهْرِيُّ وَذَلِكَ لِقَوْلِهِ ‏"‏ لاَ يَسْأَلُونِي خُطَّةً يُعَظِّمُونَ فِيهَا حُرُمَاتِ اللَّهِ إِلاَّ أَعْطَيْتُهُمْ إِيَّاهَا "‏‏
Az-Zuhri said in his report, then Suhail came and said to the Prophet "Please conclude a peace treaty with us." So, the Prophet (ﷺ) called the clerk and said to him, "Write: By the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman (the most Beneficent), Ar-Raheem (the most Merciful)." Suhail said, "As for 'Beneficent,' by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name O Allah, as you used to write previously." The Muslims said, "By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful." The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Write: By Your Name O Allah." Then he dictated, "This is the peace treaty which Muhammad, Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) has concluded." Suhail said, "By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka`ba, and would not fight with you. So, write: "Muhammad bin `Abdullah." The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "By Allah! I am Apostle of Allah even if you people do not believe me. Write: Muhammad bin `Abdullah." (Az-Zuhri said, "The Prophet (ﷺ) accepted all those things, as he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, (i.e. by letting him and his companions perform `Umra.)" - [Sahih al-Bukhari: 2731, 2732]

And as for the terms which the Muslims had to agree to, they are mentioned in the Hadith of Al-Bara':

عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ صَالَحَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمُشْرِكِينَ يَوْمَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ عَلَى ثَلاَثَةِ أَشْيَاءَ عَلَى أَنَّ مَنْ أَتَاهُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ رَدَّهُ إِلَيْهِمْ، وَمَنْ أَتَاهُمْ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ لَمْ يَرُدُّوهُ، وَعَلَى أَنْ يَدْخُلَهَا مِنْ قَابِلٍ وَيُقِيمَ بِهَا ثَلاَثَةَ أَيَّامٍ، وَلاَ يَدْخُلَهَا إِلاَّ بِجُلُبَّانِ السِّلاَحِ السَّيْفِ وَالْقَوْسِ وَنَحْوِهِ‏.‏ فَجَاءَ أَبُو جَنْدَلٍ يَحْجُلُ فِي قُيُودِهِ فَرَدَّهُ إِلَيْهِمْ‏.‏ قَالَ لَمْ يَذْكُرْ مُؤَمَّلٌ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ أَبَا جَنْدَلٍ وَقَالَ إِلاَّ بِجُلُبِّ السِّلاَحِ‏.‏

Narrated Al-Bara' bin 'Azib —Allah be pleased with him—: On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the Prophet (ﷺ), made a peace treaty with the Al-Mushrikun on three conditions:
 
 1. The Prophet (ﷺ) would return to them any person from Al-Mushrikun (polytheists, idolaters, pagans).

 2. Al-Mushrikun pagans would not return any of the Muslims going to them, and 

 3. The Prophet (ﷺ) and his companions would come to Makkah the following year and would stay there for three days and would enter with their weapons in cases, e.g., swords, arrows, bows, etc.

Abu Jandal came hopping, his legs being chained, but the Prophet (ﷺ) returned him to Al-Mushrikun. - [Sahih al-Bukhari 2700]

These are just two incidents out of numerous occasions where the prophet has exercised utmost patience and tolerance in giving deference for the all-inclusive and more beneficial opinions, and this is another immense lesson from the wisdom that the messenger of Allah was sent with, that has now almost completely fleeted the minds of today's Muslims. And Allah alone is the one we beseech for safety and assistance.

Once again my Religion taught me that giving deference (consideration) to the all-inclusive view with broad benefits without contravening the injunctions of the Sharee'ah and warding off greater evil by giving precedence to that, over attainment of benefit, are from the wisdom the prophet —Allah raise his rank and grant him peace— was sent with and also a beauty from the numerous beauties of Islam.

And that ends the eleventh lesson
Watch out for more lessons from what my religion taught me...